This project has been fascinating! I have thoroughly enjoyed researching noble women from Medieval France and England. I have learned so much about not only culture and customs of the time period, but how women (and ideas about women) have and have not changed over the course of hundreds of years. At first I struggled to narrow down my ideas enough to find good sources and craft a valid and feasible topic for research. I was reminded that you definitely have to do some digging before deciding on a topic, and I ended up changing my original idea for this project a few times over the last couple of weeks.
My favorite part of this project was the chance to notice the differences and similarities between modern day women and women from the past, 12th century Europe specifically. As I researched and read about these women, I briefly encountered experiences of women from other cultures and time periods which piqued my interest even more. There were so many avenues I could have explored with this topic and it became difficult for me to choose which path to follow with my research. It was also difficult to pare down the information I gathered to a blog post of 250 words…I went over every time, and still had oodles of information I would like to have added.
The topics I chose to research were:
1. The history, ‘rules’ and a bit of the psychology of courtly love
2. Medieval marriage and the differences between the marriages of noblewomen and peasants
3. How marriage contracts during Medieval times differ from modern day marriages
4. Historic women warriors and the significance of armor in 2 examples from Medieval history (the Amazon warrior Camilla and French knight Silence from Romane de Silence)
5. Property inheritance regulations regarding women as heiresses to titles and property
6. Women acting as regent rulers for underage heirs and absent (or dead) husbands
I had a ton of fun and definitely learned a lot. (Thanks for this opportunity and all your help Prof. P!)
Although Medieval society was mostly a patriarchal and male dominated society, landowning upper class women would often be called upon to act in their husband’s stead in the case of absence or death (Jewell 127). Historian Rowena Archer stated “virtually all women of property could expect to exercise a measure of administrative responsibility wherever and whenever the need arose” (as qtd by Jewell 127). The reign of Eleanor of Aquitaine as Queen of England, and Blanche of Castile as Queen of France demonstrate two influential women who were both called upon to fulfill administrative responsibility in the absence of their husbands and the minority or absence of an heir.
The documentation of Eleanor acting as regent Queen is found in the writs run in her name during the absence of her husband King Henry (Richardson 195), as well as the limited documentation spanning the time between her husband’s death on July 8, 1186 and her son Richard’s coronation on September 3 that same year (Richardson 201). Other than an order for the release and trial of prisoners, and for fealty to be sworn to Richard, there is no other documentation from Eleanor in the 8 weeks between Henry’s death and Richard’s coronation (Richardson 201). Yet there is little doubt that during this brief period she exercised “very great, perhaps paramount authority” (Richardson 201). Being the intelligent, capable and determined woman it appears she was, she could hardly be considered just a ‘regent’ ruler acting in place of an absent husband (Richardson 201).
Blanche of Castile presents another extraordinary example of a woman as the ruling entity (even if for only a brief time). At a young age (and in place of her older sister) Blanche was chosen by her grandmother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, to wed the future Louis VII (Abrate 659). Married at age twelve, Blanche enjoyed a surprising and rare happy marriage with Louis VII, and gave birth to twelve children (Abrate 659). She was trained from childhood to be a queen, but had to wait until her mid-thirties to become Queen of France, and then within three years lost both her beloved husband and her status (Abrate 659). She has been portrayed as a woman who is “discerning in her political judgments and thoroughly honest” (Jordan 1049). Her political accomplishments as regent and short time ruling mark her as a great queen and influential woman in French History (Abrate 659). Though she was ambitious and desired the power and title of a queen, she gracefully surrendered power to her son Louis IX and his wife Marguerite (Abrate 660). In the review of Blanche de Castile by Gerard Sivery, Jayne Abrate describes Blanche de Castile as a heroine in French history, stating that “although a woman could not succeed to the throne, France was repeatedly saved, perhaps in spite of itself, by a woman’s hand” (Abrate 660).
Abrate, Jayne. “Review: Blanche de Castille by Gerard Sivery.” American Association of Teachers of French: The French Review 65.4. (1992): pp 659-660. Web. JSTOR. 20 Apr 2012. http://www.jstor.org/stable/395202
For a woman of wealth and status in medieval times, her most important role was to produce a suitable male heir (Medieval Women). In the tradition of patrilineality and primogeniture, the inheritance of titles and property in medieval times was passed through the male line to the oldest son (Wikipedia contributors: Patrilineality; Jewell 60). In situations where there is no son and only a single daughter, she was sole heiress. In the case of several daughters, they were treated as coheiresses and partition of property would result (Jewell 122) In birth order, the eldest daughter was immediately ousted as heiress with the birth of a brother, and inheritance diminished with the birth of each sister (Jewell 20).
"Eleanor of Aquitaine" Mural in the Chapel of St. Radegund (Wikipedia contributors)
As king Louis VI of France (aka Louis the Fat) lay on his death bed, word was brought of the death of Guillaume, Count of Poitou and duke of Aquitaine (Kelley 1). The untimely end of this feudatory and the lack of a male heir left Guillaume’s eldest daughter Eleanor the duchess of a particularly influential feudal territory (Kelley 2). Not to mention that she was only fifteen at the time (Kelley 6). As King Louis’ vassal, Eleanor’s marriage contract was his prize to bestow as he wished. Under the circumstances it best suited his interests to peacefully unite Poitou and Aquitaine with his own lands, more than doubling his own feudal lands in the aquisition (Kelley 2).
Because of Eleanor’s inheritance it was decided that a hasty union between the duchess and Louis the Young, second son and heir to the throne of France following the death of his elder brother Philip, would be favorable (Kelley 2). Though young, she had spent much time traveling throughout the fiefdom and had experience with ducal business (Kelley 6). Upon the death of Louis VI, and her union with Young Louis (only two years her senior), the duchess of Aquitaine became Queen of the Franks in late summer of 1137.
Following the unsuccessful Second Crusade, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage (Wikipedia Contributors: Eleanor of Aquitaine). In early spring of 1152, Louis agreed to the annulment, Eleanor’s lands were restored to her and she later married Henry, Count of Anjou (Kelley 82). With this union she became the Duchess of Normandy and Poitou, and the Countess of Anjou (Kelley 83). She also enjoyed new freedom from restraint and surveillance, allowing her to diffuse ideas from the enlightenment throughout her domain (Kelley 85). Eleanor was young, rich, liberal and ambitious, demonstrating that while women were somewhat disadvantaged in their right to property inheritance, it was not an impossibility to create or become part of a powerful, successful, wealthy fiefdom.
Throughout history there have been legendary women warriors and leaders. In Greek mythology Athena was the goddess of war and wisdom and Artemis was goddess of the hunt and leader of the Amazonian women, an all-female society of fierce warriors (Goldstein).
Oil Painting on Silk, "Hua Mulan goes to War" (Wikipedia contributors).
An ancient Chinese ballad tell of Hua Mulan, dressed as a man and took her father’s place in the emperor’s army and was never discovered to be a woman (The Ballad of Hua Mulan).
Margaret of Anjou receiving the Book of Romance: original painting from an illuminated manuscript by the Talbot Master (Wikipedia contributors)
Other women from historical England such as Margaret of Anjou and Catherine of Aragon, as well as Joan of Arc from France were successful warrior-leaders and their actions were immortalized in legends (Wikipedia contributors: Women Warriors in Folklore).
Artist's interpretation of Joan of Arc, 1485: Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490 (Wikipedia Contributors).
Although there exist many examples of women proving themselves capable warriors, there still exists gender discrimination, particularly in regards to the actual armor worn by women warriors. Camilla, an Amazonic female warrior portrayed in Virgil’s Aeneid, is depicted as entering the fray clothed in tight fitting and exotic garb that emphasizes her idealized beauty while simultaneously demonstrating that she is not an equal to the male warriors (and all their bejeweled armor) portrayed in the Aeneid (Stock 59). Not surprisingly, it is Camilla’s lack of armor that results in her death–not because of the lack of protection, but because of the increased fascination and attraction she has toward the magnificent armor of another (male) warrior, Chloreus (Stock 58). This distraction results in her being struck down and killed, emphasizing her femininity and demonstrating that although she was an extremely powerful warrior she was lacking the crucial element in becoming an equal match for the male opponents she faced in battle (Stock 59).
In contrast, the title character of the Roman de Silence defies all feminine restrictions in knighthood and assumes all the male-gendered responsibilities and prerogatives of knighthood. Not only does Silence receive her own armor, but she has a classic arming passage, individual combat and epic battle scenes that equal an male medieval literary warrior (Stock 69). Eventually Silence gains the reputation as the most skilled knight in France, and receives a magnificent suit of armor as a gift from the King of France (Stock 71). Silence’s cross-gender identity formation hinges largely on her armor, because in order to be successful she must ‘pass’ as a male knight (Stock 73). Her adoption of male qualities allows her to be successful in a traditionally male-dominated arena, but effectually ‘silences’ her natural weapon of femininity–her words (Stock 74).
In comparing the two women warriors from medieval legend, we see that both women were disadvantaged in some way. Camilla retained the prowess and power of her femininity, but her death was brought about by her fascination with (and personal lack of) the full armor worn by her male opponent. Silence on the other hand was granted the full armor and literary prowess of arming and battle scenes, but ultimately ended up sacrificing her femininity to gain success in a masculine world.
Goldstein, Joshua S. “Amazon Women: Myths of Amazon matriarchies.” War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Cambridge University Press: 2001. Web. 18 Apr 2012. http://www.warandgender.com/wgamazon.htm
Stock, Lorraine K. “’Arms and the (Wo)man’ in Medieval Romance: The Gendered Arming of Female Warriors in the “Roman d’Eneas” and Heldris’s “Roman de Silence.” Arthuriana 5.4, Arthurian Arms and Arming (1995): pp. 56-83. 29 Mar 2012. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27869148
Wikipedia contributors. “Hua Mulan.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 16 Apr. 2012. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. “Joan of Arc.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. “List of women warriors in folklore.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 15 Apr. 2012. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. “Margaret of Anjou.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.
What are the differences between a formal union of man and woman in modern day United States and Medieval times? Much of what we learn about both modern and Medieval marriage the relationships between husband and wife is found in literature or modern day media. Examples from literature such as Tristan and Isolde, Sir Gawain, and Arveragus and Dorigen illustrate relationships that are as varied as those seen in modern times (Berenboym).
In today’s society it goes without saying that, in a relationship, we expect to love and be loved in return, especially beforecommitting to marriage. Love is considered essential in creating a successful and enduring relationship, but was insignificant in Medieval marriage contracts. Today we see most lackluster marriages coming to an end with a divorce rate in the United States of almost 50% (Worldwide Divorce Statistics). However, it is made apparent through literature that in medieval times loveless marriages were common, and love usually existed outside of marriage. In the legend of Tristan and Isolde the lovers are separated by the betrothal and marriage of Isolde, a beautiful Irish princess, to King Mark who is Tristan’s uncle (“Tristan and Isolde”). Although tragically their true love is denied them in life, they are united in death never to be separated again (“Tristan and Isolde”).
Literature also suggests that, although it was less probable, there was the chance of finding love after marriage (Berenboym). In The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnelle we see a repulsive hag transformed into a beautiful lady, and a marriage changed from a chivalrous agreement to a marriage where love does indeed exist between husband and wife ( Hahn). While not many couples in modern society fall in love with their spouse after marriage, the plot ofGawain and Ragnelle’s romance is a motif in fairy tales like “The Frog Prince,” “Beauty and the Beast,” and others (Hahn).
Perhaps the ideal marriage is seen in “The Franklin’s Tale” from Geoffrey Chaucer’s collection of stories The Canterbury Tales. The love between Arveragus and Dorigen was not dictated by domination, jealousy or mastery, but humility, obedience friendship and faithfulness (Chaucer ch. 45).
Literature is a reflection of reality, both past and present and through literature we see that all marriages have some problem or difficulty. Literature also demonstrates that, in any time period, love is a rare gift and should be cherished and treasured by those who receive it (Berenboym).
Timeline and Brief History of “Sling-base Throwing Machines”
This is a photograph of a work of art from the 12th century which shows a traction trebuchet. You can see the men pulling down on ropes to give flight to the projectile (Peter of Eboli).
China introduced us to the first sling based throwing machines in the 4th and 5th centuries (Chevedden, Eigenbrod, Foley, and Soedel, l). They were powered by men pulling on ropes that were connected to the end of a swinging arm. Later in the 7th century these man powered machines, manganikon, were developed in the Byzantine Empire. The Arabic empires then adapted the machines calling them manjaniq and were the most accurate and reliable. The Frankish Empire also used these first sling based throwing machines, finding a balance between reliability, accuracy, and cost (Nossov, 163-164).
This is an image of a traction trebuchet contained in a manuscript depicting a Byzantine siege of a citadel. The image is from the 11th century and the author is unknown. It is interesting to note the archer who would attempt to defend the pullers ("Unknown").
In the 8th century, a hybrid counterweight-man powered stone thrower was born, offering more power and accuracy. It easily hurled a 50 kilogram projectile through the air. Innovation of the stone thrower throughout four centuries produced a new throwing machine that used the force of gravity rather than pulling on ropes and by late 12th century the European trebuchet was developed (Nossov 171).
The Concept and Design of Hinged Counterweight Trebuchets.
The development of a trebuchet was an evolutionary process consisting of many engineering innovations throughout centuries of observation and design. Constructing a trebuchet consisted of a “supporting framework with vertical posts joined by an axle.” A beam is un-proportionately positioned through an axle. At the longer end of the beam a sling made of leather or netting was fixed with rope to the beam and then doubled-backed and attached to a metal pin or hook. On the shorter end ropes in the case of a traction trebuchet or an immense counterweight was attached to deliver the necessary conversion from force to mechanical energy (Nossov, 171).
One of two vertical supports that will be attached to a base and joined together by and axle.
The two vertical supports (framework) of the trebuchet. The beam is also shown here which will have the axle go through it.
The two vertical post are connected to a base to complete the framework for the trebuchet. The hole for the axle has been drilled in the posts but not in the beam. The counterweight box, sling and channel still need to be completed.
Medieval engineers in the 13th century found that counterweights that were hinged could throw projectiles farther as, they were able to harness more energy than their other counterweight counterparts (Nossov, 174). Additionally the hinge proved to be a great braking system for the trebuchet allowing it to nearly completely stop as the beam rotates to an upright vertical position. The breaking system induced by the hinged counterweight decreased the amount of strain inflicted on the structural framework and cushioned the violent reaction that would cause the trebuchet to go off target upon the next firing (Chevedden, Eigenbrod, Foley, and Soedel, 3). As a result “The much gentler release of the trebuchet meant that engineers did not have to reposition the frame between shots and so could shoot more rapidly and accurately” (Chevedden, Eigenbrod, Foley, and Soedel , 3). Other advantages were that hinged or moveable counterweight trebuchets were easier to “transfer and assemble” (Nossov, 174).
Sling pouch made of leather cut into a diamond like shape. Two triangle pieces of the leather were cut out and stitched together to create a pocket rather than a flap. Grommets were attached to each end of the leather and tied to the rope to complete the sling.
Don't make and glue pieces for the wrong side! Just completed the hinge supports for the counterweight box. Opps...they were for the wrong side. Luckily the glue hadn't dried.
Completed the counterweight box and hinge. The axle will be put through the short end of the beam. This will allow for more energy to be transferred to the sling and ultimately the projectile.
In order to load the trebuchet the long end of the beam was pulled down to the ground by a series of ropes, windlass, and or squirrel’s wheels. A large trebuchet was cocked by 10 to 12 men who could lift a 10-ton counterweight in approximately 6 minutes. When the long end of the beam was lowered into position the trigger was fixed and the sling was prepared (Nossov, 177). The sling entered a special channel which directed the sling and various projectiles: stone or lead balls, pots of flammable substances, cobble-stone grenades, burning sand/tar, darts, diseased corpses, or beehives were loaded inside the sling (“Trebuchets”).
A shot was fired in the following way…the operator released the trigger mechanism and the counterweight sped downwards, propelled by the force of gravity. The longer end of the beam soared upwards respectively. The sling would tear itself off the chute in which it lay, outstripping the lifting of the beam, and would lash around the end of the beam, adding acceleration to the projectile. Depending on the construction of the sling, its end either slid off the cog on the beam or was pulled by a tie; the sling would unfold and release the projectile (Nossov, 174).
Trigger construction and application was diverse. Triggers found in ancient drawings of trebuchets do not always reflect the method of firing a trebuchet. Due to the proximity of the trigger in conjunction with the beam, it has been suggested that the soldier who’s duty to pull the trigger may have been just as dangerous as the soldier on the frontline. A common trigger was a rope-over beam method. The rope then needed to be expelled by a mallet, pin or snap (“Trebuchet Triggers”).
Melted lead into six bricks that weight approx. 1.5 pounds each.
Completed lead bricks to act as counterweight for the trebuchet. Don't touch they are still hot!
Attaching the channel which will guide the sling and keep the projectile on target. Also, in the background you can see my first attempt at the beam. The holes for the axle were not drilled straight.
When laying siege to a wall or castle stone or lead balls of the same caliber (weight and size) were used. This allowed consistent and accurate shots. The complete trebuchet mechanical system is truly a dynamic one. The velocity, distance, and trajectory are not only dependant on the ratio of projectile weight to counterweight but also the sling length, cog length and angles, and beam length and angles and counterweight motion. Firing a projectile in a short sling versus a long sling resulted in a steeper or grazing trajectory respectively. However these trajectories were also determined by the size and weight of the projectiles and counterweight (Nossov, 177).
Locked and loaded. Bird-eye view of the completed trebuchet. The trigger is a metal rod connected to a pullrope. The box is loaded to the brim with lead bricks. The ropes and pulleys are connected to the framework and beam to lower the beam after it has been fired. The only thing which wasn't done on this trebuchet was the construction of a windlass.
Impacts of the Trebuchet….
The trebuchet expanded and impacted Islamic, Mongol and European conquest. It was a weapon which held both offensive and defensive operations and was an instrument which helped propelled the “Black Death” epidemic across ancient Europe – as diseased corpses were hurled into cities (Chevedden, Eigenbrod, Foley, and Soedel, 2).Further it seems to have had an impact on theories of motion and the development of clocks and pendelums.
“During their heyday, trebuchets received much attention from engineers indeed; the very word ‘engineering’ is intimately related to them. In Latin and the European venaculars, a common term for trebuchet was ‘engine’ (from ingenium, ‘an ingenious contrivance’), and those who designed, made and used them were called ingeniators” (Chevedden, Eigenbrod, Foley, and Soedel, 3).
The trebuchet was a multifaceted feat that furthered science, engineering, technology, as well as politics and war. It impacted four civilizations of which “its fullest development [was achieved] in Western Europe” (Chevedden, 71-72). Today it’s role helps students understand not only historical achievements but also physical principles that were discovered centuries ago. It has been well enjoyed by historians, layman, hobbyists and enthusiasts. As for myself, I have enjoyed learning what made the trebuchet a “Great Idea of the West.”
Side view of the completed trebuchet. Not bad considering It started with just a pile of sticks and some random hardware.
Chevedden, Paul E. “The Invention of the Counterweight Trebuchet: A Study in Cultural Diffusion.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 54 (2000): pp. 71-116. JSTOR. Web. Apr 1. 2011. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1291833>.
Chevedden, Paul E. Eigenbrod, Les. Foley, Vernard. And Soedel, Werner. “The Trebuchet.” Scientific American Spec. Online Issue. Scientific American, Inc. Feb. 2002. Web. 1. Apr. 2012.
Noble children were often betrothed in infancy. A Princeton professor, Lawrence Stone, stated these betrothals were contracts “by which children were bartered like cattle” (Searle). These marriage contracts were usually orchestrated to the political or monetary advantage of the father, whose feelings toward his own children would be emotional detachment at best (Searle). Wealth and status were the deciding factor in complicated transactions of betrothal and marriage, and age was largely irrelevant (Peakman). An example of these ‘transactions’ is seen in the marriage of Richard Neville and Anne Beauchamp (daughter of the Earl of Warwick). The future Earl was married when he was only six years old (Peakman). Not only did a woman have no choice of whom she married, but once married she came under her husband’s control and she was not allowed to divorce him (Medieval Women). It was taught that it was a woman’s religious duty and the will of God to defer to her husband: “Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord” (Peakman, Colossians 3:18).
While the life of a peasant was undeniably more difficult, those that were lower on the social ladder had much more freedom to love and court whomever they chose (Peakman). Poor peasant women generally did not marry until much later than those of the upper class; as young children they began working to help provide for their families, and marriage would deprive poor peasants of a much needed worker (Medieval Women). Love was a much more public affair in the lower classes. When a peasant woman did reach an appropriate age for courtship, she would most likely court a young man from the same village and would do so publicly (Medieval Women). The couple would usually meet at markets and festivals, and according to recorded ballads the woman would be wooed with gifts of food, money and clothes (Peakman). Marriage was simple and life was hard, but it seemed that the poor really could marry for love.
Holy Bible: King James Version. United States: 1979, p. 1496. Print.
Peakman, Julie. “Poise and Passion in the Middle Ages.” History Today 61.8 (2011): p 36-41. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Apr 2012.
Eleanor of Aquitaine The Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
The aggressive warrior queen, Eleanor of Acquitaine, is not the most likely candidate for advancing civility in a ruthless era. Yet one of her strongest influences on medieval culture is attributed to her attempt to promote the songs of troubadours, chivalry and courtly love (Weider History Network). Although the idea and practices of courtly love certainly existed before Eleanor’s time, between the years of 1168 and 1173 she served as a catalyst to help bring about a new movement toward courtly love (Weider History Network).
During Medieval times a woman ” is elevated to the position of an ideal, a feminine ‘essence,’ if you will, who serves’ as man’s cause” (Ragland, 5). The idea of courtly love is not based on rational courtship practices, nor does there appear to be any real correlation between marriage and love. According to Jacques Alain Miller, love is the demand for nothing (as quoted by Ragland, 9). While it has been stated that courtly love was a heroic effort to “circumvent a necessary impasse between the sexes” (Ragland, 3), courtly love came to be defined as “a question to which the answers were not apparent” (15) and was driven largely by the fulfilling of “unconscious [and mostly sexual] desires” (16).
In a way, courtly love is a ‘feminist’ practice. According to Ragland, this issue of feminism hedges on “each woman’s grappling with the problem of finding a signifier to valorize her existence as Woman” (Ragland, 9). In contrast Lacan states in the Ethics of Psychoanalysis that rather than being feminist, courtly love is narcissitic with the “feminine object being voided of any real substance, her real virtues of prudence, wisdom, etc., not being extolled (Lacan 150-151, as quoted by Ragland, 16).
Today it is generally assumed that rules do not exist when it comes to love. While these may not be considered ‘rules’ of love, here is a list of general guidelines or explanations of courtly love as written by 12th century Frenchman Andreas Capellanus (“Courtly Love”):
Marriage is no real excuse for not loving
He who is not jealous, cannot love
No one can be bound by a double love
It is well known that love is always increasing or decreasing
That which a lover takes against the will of his beloved has no relish
Boys do not love until they arrive at the age of maturity
When one lover dies, a widowhood of two years is required of the survivor
No one should be deprived of love without the very best of reasons
No one can love unless he is impelled by the persuasion of love
Love is always a stranger in the home of avarice
It is not proper to love any woman whom one would be ashamed to seek to marry
A true lover does not desire to embrace in love anyone except his beloved
When made public love rarely endures
The easy attainment of love makes it of little value; difficulty of attainment makes it prized
Every lover regularly turns pale in the presence of his beloved
When a lover suddenly catches sight of his beloved, his heart palpitates
A new love puts to flight an old one
Good character alone makes any man worthy of love
If love diminishes, it quickly fails and rarely revives
A man in love is always apprehensive
Real jealousy always increases the feeling of love
Jealousy, and therefore love, are increased when one suspects his beloved
He whom the thought of love vexes eats and sleeps very little
Every act of a lover ends in the thought of his beloved
A true lover considers nothing good except what he thinks will please his beloved
Love can deny nothing to love
A lover can never have enough of the s <3olaces of his beloved
A slight presumption causes a lover to suspect his beloved
A man who is vexed by too much passion usually does not love
A true lover is constantly and without intermission possessed by the thought of his beloved
Nothing forbids one woman being loved by two men or one man by two women