Author Archives: epicharis801

Tower of London Model- Final Project

Tower of London Overview

An overview of the Tower of London taken from Wikipedia

I decided to do my final project on the Tower of London, by making a model of it. I went on a vacation to London with my dad in 2011. While we were there we stopped at a lot of the famous attractions and one that struck out to me was the Tower of London. I’ve always loved and have been fascinated by castles, so what better chance to get to learn about them more than do my final project on one! I started by project by looking up images of the aerial view of the castle. The one I based my model off of is the one to the left that I found on Wikipedia’s page about the Tower of London. With this picture giving me a general idea of how to make my model, I decided to look up model ideas that maybe other people have used. I came across a website that had a paper print out that could be cut out and folded into the main central building of the castle called White Tower. I used this as my main focus and after hours of cutting, folding, and gluing, I finally had my White Tower. I then bought a foam poster board, some spray paint, and saved a lot of toilet paper rolls for the inner and outer walls of my castle. I used popsicle sticks for the inner wall and then created the other buildings with cardboard. After all of that was finished, I completed my model by printing out labels of the buildings and towers, and taped them to the sides. I had a lot of fun doing this project and I was very pleased at how it turned out.

The final product of my project!

The final product of my project!

 Work Cited

Cannon Creative Park: (where I got my paper model)

Image from: Wikipedia contributors. “Tower of London.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 7 Apr. 2014. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.


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Bishop Odo and the Battle of Hastings

Plate 67 from Wilson

Plate 67 from Wilson, Bishop Odo Encouraging his troops at the Battle of Hastings

The section I received was part of the Battle of Hastings. Before I go into what my panel is about, here’s a little background on the Battle of Hastings and why it was taking place. William, the Duke of Normandy, was fighting King Harold of England (Hicks 3). This fight between them was called the Battle of Hastings. My panel takes place right after the Norman troops thought that William was slayed. The man on the horse with the club in the air was William’s younger half-brother, Odo, who was a Bishop. He has his club in the air and was trying to encourage the Norman troops to press forward; they didn’t want to go on because they thought William was dead. The Latin above this scene reads “Hic Odo Eps (Episcopus) Baculu(m) Tenens Confortat Pueros”, –  which translates to “Here Odo the Bishop holding a club strengthens the boys,” (Wikipedia Contributors).

Detailed Plate 67 from Wilson

Detailed Plate 67 from Wilson, Bishop Odo and his baculum

It is important for history’s sake to know that Odo was a Bishop, and that he was holding a club. As a man of the church, he was not meant to have a blood-shedding weapon, such as a sword. However, he gets around this by brandishing a “baton of command” called a baculum (Wilson 194). It is noticed that all of the other warriors and soldiers are holding swords and long spears, but since he was a man of God and held a church calling, he was holding a club. It is also noticed that he is not wearing any sort of body armor in this scene, just a helmet. This gives more evidence to show that since he was a Bishop, he was not supposed to be engaged in any sort of fighting activity. The border below the middle scene is filled with dead and dismembered corpses, broken weapons, and even a dead horse. Showing the fallen soldiers of the war (Wilson 193).

This panel gives a lot of historical evidence. It shows what the soldiers may have looked like when in battle, and also gives a good representation of what the Bishop and other religious leaders would have looked like (no armor, just a helmet), and why.


Hicks, Carola. The Bayeux Tapestry: The Life Story of a Masterpiece. London: Random House, 2006. Print.

Wikipedia contributors. “Odo, Earl of Kent.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 Mar. 2014. Web. 27 Mar. 2014.

Wilson, David M. The Bayeux Tapestry. New York: Thames & Hudson Inc., 2004. Print.



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The Use of Scouts during Alexander the Great’s Time

This blog is going to focus on Alexander the Great’s use of scouts and the different types. I am going to be looking at two different types of scouts used, the ones to gather intelligence, and the ones who were used in battle. One incident of Alexander’s use of scouts to gather intelligence that I came across the most was for preparing for the battle of Issus. Alexander had scouts go and gather information about the size, status, and location of the fleeing Persians. He also obtained intelligence concerning the terrain of the region so that he could plan and be prepared and have the advantage when the battle actually occurred (Engles 334).

Alexander also used scouts in battle. They typically were on horses and were armed. Their job was to be sent ahead of the main army when contact with advance units of a hostile army was expected. The prodromoi were scouts that were equipped with only light armor and a sword. They are defined as skirmisher light cavalry who were equipped for scouting and outpost duties (“Ancient Macedonian Army”). They would jump early into battle and sort of harass the enemy and slash whoever they could. The sarissophoroi were scout raiders who were fast and capable of charging. They had throwing spears but were only lightly armored. The kontos were the scout lancers who were the most heavily armored and were used to break enemy defense lines (“Warfare”).

This is a a piece of sculpture that forms part of the Alexander Sarcophagus. It gives repesentation of what a scout in the calvary may have looked like. He is more heavily armed and has a sword.

This is a piece of sculpture that forms part of the Alexander Sarcophagus. It represents what a scout in the cavalry may have looked like. He is more heavily armed and has a sword.


Alexander benefitted from the use of scouts because it gave him the upper hand in knowing what was going to take place, what the enemy’s plans were, and how to best take his opponent down. This is proven by the battle of Issus, where Alexander was able to develop tactics and strategically place his men to overcome his opponent by using scouts. However, it is written that Alexander’s scouts are not mentioned after the pursuit of Darius, his opponent in the battle of Issus, the theories behind this are that maybe Alexander reorganized the scouts, or that maybe he trained some of the as a unit of javelin-men (Worthington 298). A little while after the battle of Issus, Alexander was planning on marching after Darius a third time, but scouts found out that Darius had been slain before Alexander could get to him, thus the scouts saved him a trip (Rufus 16). A lot of Alexander’s victories can be credited to the use of scouts and intelligence. Without using them, he wouldn’t have gotten the advantage of knowing what the enemies plans were and may not have won so many battles that he did.


Engles, Donald. “Alexander’s Intelligence System.” The Classical Quarterly XXX.1 (1980): 327-340. Print Image.

Rufus, Quintus Curtius and Johann Freinsheim. Quintus Curtius: His History of the Wars of Alexander. 1747. Print.

Warfare in Ancient Greece- Cavarly. 28 November 2008. Web. 3 March 2014.

Wikipedia contributors. “Ancient Macedonian army.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 4 Mar. 2014. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Worthington, Ian. Alexander the Great: A Reader. Routledge, 2012. Print.

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The Persian Archer

My blog is going to primarily focus on the Persian archer himself. For example, the qualities he needs to have, the characteristics and attributes that would benefit him, and the type of armor he would wear when going into battle. This information was found in an article that was based off of a Persian archery manuscript called Resāleye Kamāndāri, which was discovered in 1968. It goes through many different aspects of archery, including the qualities that it was thought that the archer should have. It summarizes those qualities in ten points which are further grouped into moral, temperamental and physical characteristics. The moral requirements are to be pure of heart and grateful to one’s master, to not be greedy and to lead a pure life, and to keep promises and to do good deeds. Temperamentally, the archer needs to be in a good mood and stand tall, and be able to cope with suffering and be chivalrous. The physical features are having an open chest, wide shoulders, and long arms. The archer also needed to have the knowledge and skills of how to properly use the bow. It was not a weapon you could just take and use immediately, it required thought and preparation along with calmness and self-control (Dwyer et al 2).

This is a red vase and based on my research this is an accurate depiction of how the archers in this time period looked, artist Epiktetos (signed), time frame between circa 520 and circa 500 BC

This is a red vase and based on my research this is an accurate depiction of how the archers in this time period looked, artist Epiktetos (signed), time frame between circa 520 and circa 500 BC

The archer’s attire was made up of a tunic and trousers, which were loose fitting and usually had an elaborate woven decoration to them. There was also a cap that they wore along with a combined quiver and bow-case (Iranian Archer- Soldier Profile). Many times, the foot soldier carried a short sword (acinaces), a spear with wooden shaft and metal head and butt, a quiver full of arrows of reed with bronze or iron heads, and a bow about one meter long with ends formed in animals’ heads, and a case which combined the bow-case and quiver-holder (Shahbazi).

An Achaemenid Archer with a composite bow. This is another idea of what the Persian archer would have looked like.

An Achaemenid Archer with a composite bow. This is another idea of what the Persian archer would have looked like.


An Achaemenid Archer with a Long Bow. The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies. Web.

DWYER, Bede, and Manouchehr MOSHTAGH KHORASANI. “An Analysis of A Persian Archery Manuscript Written By Kapur Čand.” Revista De Artes Marciales Asiaticas 8.1 (2013): 1-12. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.

Iranian Archer- Soldier Profile. 10 November 2010. Web. 9 Feburary 2014.

Shahbazi, Sh., A. Achaemenid Army. n.d. Web. 9 Feburary 2014.

Wikipedia contributors. “Trousers.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 Jan. 2014. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.


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