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Spartan Armor: Greaves, Vambraces, Helmet: FINAL

Honors 2110B

14 April 2014

Final Project

The Spartan Attire

http://www.stormthecastle.com/how-to-make-a/spartan-helmet.htm

paper mache spartan helmet exactly how I made mine.

 

Image

paper mache spartan helmet

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This shows a more realistic version of what the helmets looked like. Found on: https://www.strongblade.com/prod/sbh-spartancrested_hist.html

Being one of the most feared military forces, the Spartans definitely left their mark in history. In an article on Wikipedia it is said that Lycurgus, legendary lawgiver of Sparta, said that the Spartans were needed like a “wall of men, instead of bricks.” This quote shows how the Spartans must have been a fierce, strong army. Their strength may have come from the fact that they were put into army involvement at a young age. When the Spartans men were in infancy, he was inspected by the Gerousia, a Spartan council of Elders. It was harsh because if the baby was found to be weak, he was left to die and if the baby was deemed strong, than he was put into the agoge by the age of seven. At the agoge, from Wikipedia’s explanation it sounds like what would be today as a military camp, the children would then learn the rigorous education and training regimen specified for all male Spartan citizens. The training was quite intense, but it was something the Spartans had to put up with, which in the end benefited them when they became fierce fighters. Almost sounds like the movie 300.

As being fierce fighters the Spartans also wore some armor as well. The Spartans had similar hoplite equipment like their other Greek neighbors that they used, but what made them a little bit different were their red cloaks, cuirass, and long hair. In the Archaic period it is said that the Spartan men typically had a bronze, muscled breastplate, a helmet with cheek plates, as well as greaves, and vambraces.

For my final project I constructed some medieval Spartan Armor out of paper mache. I made a Spartan helmet, greaves, and vambraces. Many may question, what part of the body did these cover or protect? First of all, the greaves, or leg guards as we would call them today, were a vital piece of the Spartans armor. The greaves were needed because the shields only covered down to about the thighs. The greaves would protect the shin, knees, and ankles and were almost molded to fit the exact shape of the legs.

Also the Spartans had vambraces, which were like armguards.  The vambraces covered the forearms. These were needed to protect the soldier’s arm for when he reached out to thrust at an enemy, his arms would be protected.

Lastly is the Spartan helmet which was also made of bronze. The helmets followed the Corinthian helmet style. The Spartan helmet provided protection for pretty much the entire face and head. As people take a look at the type of helmets that the Spartans wore, they can tell that these helmets would also restrict their sight and hearing due to the fact that the helmet covered so much. The helmet was long across the sides to help protect the cheeks and also had a long piece down the center to protect the nose. Some of the helmets would have long, red horse hairs called plumes, which were used for intimidation and to make the Spartans appear taller and fiercer. I constructed my helmet of a more basic Corinthian style helmet that would have also been used during that time as well.

Works Cited

Ancient Sparta. (2011, April 13). Retrieved from Trivia: http://www.funtrivia.com/en/subtopics/Spartan-Armament-271128.html

Kalif, W. (2014, April 14). Spartan Vambraces: Armor . Retrieved from Storm the Castle: http://www.stormthecastle.com/

  notes: also more pictures of paper mache hear as well.

Miller, F. (2007). 300. Retrieved from Hollywood vs. History : http://www.historyvshollywood.com/reelfaces/300spartans.php

Sparta: Greatest Military Power of Greece. (2014, April 14). Retrieved from Dress-Spartan Army: http://www.sparta.net/listingview.php?listingID=28

Swords and Weapons of Honor. Retrieved from https://www.strongblade.com/prod/sbh-spartancrested_hist.html

PICTURE

The Spartan Military . (2012, December 14). Retrieved from Ancient Military: http://www.ancientmilitary.com/spartan-military.htm

Wikipedia . (2014, April 10). Retrieved from Spartan Army : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spartan_army

Wikipedia. (2014, April 14). Retrieved from Lycurgus of Sparta: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lycurgus_of_Sparta

 

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Alexander the Great of Macedonia

Alexander the Great of Macedon

Honors Blog 2 REDONE

15 April 2014

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great: The Battle
Taken From Mount Albert Grammar School Website
http://www.mags.school.nz/Story?Action=View&Story_id=2456

Alexander III of Macedon, also known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Greek kingdom of Macedon.  He was the son of a warrior king; making him air to a powerful thrown. His father was Philip of Macedon and his father was one of the first to unite Greece’s independent city states.  His father, wanting Alexander to be a great future ruler, brings Aristotle from Athens to teach young Alexander how to observe, think ahead and reason. According to Discovery Education, Aristotle’s lessons made Alexander the first great strategist in military history with Achilles also being Alexander’s role model. Discovery Channel Education even says that Alexander offered up prayers to Achilles, and even takes Achilles shield.

Going along with his father Philip he learned many things such as how to treat the men in his army. Soon the days of going along with his father ended as Philip was assassinated at the celebration of his daughter’s wedding. At only 21 years old, Alexander ascends the thrown. As he takes the thrown, many begin to question if he has the skills for a warrior.

Soon Alexander proves that he is suit for the throne. According to Wikipedia, Alexander responded quickly to the new of the states attempting to revolt. He is said to have marched toward Thebes and here is where he strikes ruthlessly. The news quickly spreads throughout the cities and Alexander soon is said to be “invincible.”

This is shown, as when he arrives in Athens, no one dares to oppose Alexander after the news they have heard. But instead of punishing all of his enemies, he offers up a proposition. If all of Greece joined together, and gave him ships, soldiers and other supplies then he would fulfill what they desired. Alexander told them that he would launch a war to liberate the Greek cities in areas occupied by the Persians

This great ruler was fierce and did not let anything get in his way. He even had a special line up formation that made his army a special fighting machine. This was called a phalanx, where the men would stand together in tightly knit blocks with long almost 18ft lances (according to Discovery Channel History) tipped in bronze, called sarisas. As each line would lower them down, it created a deadly sharp wall. Alexander would send them straight into the Persian lines, impaling rows and rows of Persians.

Whatever the terrain, from tropical to bitter cold, scorching desert to waterlogged marshland, Alexander met every challenge he was set and overcame every difficulty he encountered. He was smart, keen, and a great fighter. He even had kindness and mercy in his heart as well. Alexander treated his men well, and even showed mercy to some of his enemy’s. According to Discovery Education, Alexander even spared the coward Darius’s wife and daughter, and took them in. I think this truly shows a legendary mark he left in history.

Works Cited

Bosworth, A. B. (1996). Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph.Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Buhl, H. (2010). Alexander the Great & The Fall of the Roman Empire. Ancient History Pathfinder, 50-62.

Retrieved from http://hbl.gcc.edu/

Discovery Channel Education. Alexander the Great of Macedonia: Alexander Unifies the Greek City States

http://www.discoveryeducation.com/

Macedonian ships traveling traveling down Hydaspes and Indus rivers. History of Macedon. University of    California, Oxford. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/

Mount Albert Grammar School. Alexander the Great. Picture

http://www.mags.school.nz/Story?Action=View&Story_id=2456

Naiden, F. (2011). Alexander the Great. Journal of the History of Society, 1, 1-21.

Robinson, C. A. (1953). The History of Alexander the Great. Providence, Rhode Island: Indiana University Library.

Watkins, T. (2009, 06 12). Alexander of Macedonia . Retrieved from SJSU:http://www.sjsu.edu/

Wood, M. (2007). In the Footsteps of Alexander The Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia. San Diego: University of California Press, 1997.

 

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Battle of Salamis: Greek Tactics/Organization REDONE

The Battle of Salamis

Tales From Herodotus XVI. The Battle of Salamis, 480 B.C.

Battle of Salamis

Greek Tactics/Organization 

     In the roaring waters near Salamis, the Greek fleet laid anchor, as the Persian fleet arrived and closed off the Greek retreat, keeping them in straights between Salamis and Attica.  At the same time, the Peloponnesians were building a wall to prevent the advance of the Persian army. A naval battle was soon fought between the Greek city-states and the Achaemenid Empire of Persia in September 480 BC.  As numerous ships trailed through the waters, the marking of the soon to be war was upon them as they lined up in preparation to see who would be victorious.

     As each side prepared for battle, different tactics and strategies engulfed the minds of each side. The number of ships is debated, but it is estimated that there were about 1200 Persian ships, but according to some modern historians, they reject this number and state that there may have been about 600-800 triremes. No matter what the number, the Greeks were still facing a disadvantage against the Persians due to this matter. Even though the Persians had a large numerical advantage, they still had some disadvantages as well. One of these was that they would have to attack the Greeks in the narrow straight rather than in the large, open sea because in confined spaces they could not outflank the smaller Greek force. The straights were so narrow that only half the Persian fleet could enter into it. The Persians, expecting an easy victory, were at a significant tactical advantage, outnumbering their allies.  Most of their marines carried a bow, which the Persians relied greatly on in their battles, which would most likely fail if their ship was boarded, as the bow would be negated due to the standoff range because it was not as good in hand to hand fighting.  Persians had ships with triremes being equipped with a ram at the bows, which would be used for ramming, which required skilled sailing, Persians were more likely to employ this technique.

     Led by Themistocles, the Greeks sailed there estimated 300 plus ships, (Herodotus reports that there were around 378 triremes) which were faster than the Persians, to battle. Being outnumbered by almost 3:1, the Greeks had the plan to counter this by fighting the Persians in a narrow space, as it would be favorable to the Greeks, as the leader, Themistocles, persuaded them to stay and fight the Persians in the narrows. Another tactic sought out by Themistocles was sending out a trusted slave to send a message to the Persian King that stated, “that the Greeks were about to flee.” Once the slave delivered the message, he returned telling the Greeks that the king had fallen for the trick and had ordered his captains to spend the night blocking all the escape routes that they had. As the Persians stood the whole at their ores, the Greeks slept soundly.

       Confident of their victory, the Persian king Xerxes, scoured up a hill to find a vantage point where he could watch the battle take place and by morning, all the Persians ships were in place. Some of the Persian ships blocked the Western straight while others packed the narrow waters of Salamis. This is where they waited for movement from the Greek fleet, but nothing came. Stunned, Xerxes was led to asking advice from his commanders who all told the king to attack, but one voice differed from the others. This voice came from the only woman commander, Queen Artemisia. Herodotus says, “Xerxes held a council with the Persian fleet at Phalerum.”  During this time, the Queen Artemisia tried to convince Xerxes to wait until the allies surrendered; adding that attacking was an unnecessary risk. Xeroxes ignored her advice.

        In the meanwhile, this was all beneficial for the Greeks, as they had a perfect night’s sleep and were prepared for battle. As another one of the Greeks tactics, the wind was now blowing south as they had hoped for, which began pushing all the Persian boats closer and closer to Themistocles. Finally, the Greek ships began to execute their well thought out plan. The Greeks felt confident knowing that the Persians would be exhausted and worn out after patrolling all night. Quickly the Persians realized this horrible mistake, the Greeks were nowhere close to fleeing, a battle was about to take place.

            The oarsman pulled and push like a powerful engine as they headed towards the Persians. Soon it all began as a Greek ship rammed a Persian ship, sending bodies into the waters. The maneuverable Greek ships soon brought havoc upon the Persians, as the Persians boats could not move as well. The stranded Persian ships with their exhausted men were almost like sitting ducks. Themistocles plan had worked.

          As the queen escaped, the scene over 200 Persian ships that were sunk was viewed. Many men were lost in the battle, even Xerxes brother. Xerxes left to Asia, leaving his army to carry on the battle, but he knew that when he didn’t have command of the sea, he would never control Greece. And so it was a defeat for the Persians.

 

Works Cited

Elayi, Josette. The Role of the Phoenician Kings at the Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.E.). Vol. 126. Paris: Journal of the American Oriental Society, 2006. Scholarly Journal.

Gabriel, Richard A. Battle of Salamis. Vol. 26. Military History, 2009. 28 January 2014. <http://web.a.ebscohost.com.hal.weber.edu/&gt;.

Rainey, William. Death of the Persian admiral at Salamis. The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library. Plutarch’s Lives for Boys and Girls’,. n.d. Colour Lithograph.PICTURE.

Rawlinson, George. Herodotus: The History. Vol. 4. New York Appleman & Company, 1885. Print.

Waterfield, Robin. Herodotus:The Histories. 2008. Book.

Wood, Adrian K. Warships of the World. 2012. Book.

 

 

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Breaking Into the Castle

Bodiam Castle

Bodiam Castle in East Sussex, England, surrounded by a water-filled moat.
From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle

 8 April 8, 2014

  Breaking into the Castle

                Breaking into a castle can be a difficult task, you don’t just ram down the door like in many Hollywood movies. There are many considerations one must take when planning to break into a castle. They must consider special tactics such as attack methods, infiltration, logistics, and food/water supplies. The movies may make it look easy, but as you take a look back into the actual history, it becomes a lengthy, tiring pursuit.

                First thing to consider when preparing to take over a castle is considering your infiltration. We plan to have leather skin diving helmets in case we had a moat that we could protect ourselves with. Also, plan to persuade the locals to betray their lord because almost always peasants want to revolt. Our biggest plan would be having a friend in China who sends us gun powder to use. We would use this by dumping buckets of gun powder all around the walls of the castle. This will be put to use during the night to prevent the opposing team from sleeping.

                In the end the most important factor is making sure that our campsite is strongly defended. We don’t plan to have any of the men coming out to destroy our campsite, so we would ensure that we had patrols at regular time intervals to ensure that no one is sneaking in or out. To make sure of this we would have thick wood walls to build up our security. If they try to intervene, we plan to throw our waste at them.

                If the battle lasts longer than expected we plan to plant crops a short distance from camp to keep us well fed. We plan to control the outside water sources, as the castles will be contaminated from our tactics. Also we will loot/buy food from the locals as well. If that all fails we will intercept supply caravans that are meant for the castle. We will be prepared and ready to take down the castle.

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Bayeux Tapestry

Bayeux Tapestry

Bayeux Tapestry

Bayeux Tapestry

Blog Post 3

March 30, 2014

Imagine an embroidered cloth, around 230 ft. long, that depicts many events, all in amazing imagery, and all done on one long piece of cloth. This is what the Bayeux Tapestry accomplished. The Bayeux Tapestry is a supreme accomplishment that depicts scenes from the Norman conquest of England, which included William, Duke of Normandy and Harold, Earl of Wessex (who later became King of England) in the Battle of Hastings.

Although not a true tapestry, where the design is actually woven into the cloth, indeed it is magnificent embroidery. The Bayeux Tapestry’s survival isn’t the only amazing; its length, colors, workmanship and harmony is something that surprises many as they view this spectacular work of art. This tapestry contains over 60 endless fascinating scenes that contain Latin writings embroidered on the cloth. The scenes are embroidered with wool yarn on tabby-woven linen estimated to be about 224.3 ft × 1.6 ft, and is estimated to be longer since historians suggest that some pieces are missing. Two different methods were used to create these scenes, outline or stem stitch for lettering and the outlines of figures and couching or laid work for filling in figures. As each panel was completed, it was put together to create one beautiful, colorful masterpiece.

Panel 69 contains scenes of men on horses fighting other men on the ground with long spears and swords. The main yarn colors used in the scene are terracotta, blue-green, gold, olive green, and blue with light yellow also intertwined with the other colors. In this scene I think that the Normans attack viciously as they fight on their horses with spears and swords, stabbing the men on the grounds that carry shields in the design of a twisted X.  I think that this piece of the art was used to show the nature of the battle as numerous horses ride towards the enemy. I think that is starts to show a victory as you look at the different scenes after this panel as it describes how Harold is struck, and Normans become victorious. While also included in the scene is Latin words, which according to many sites, state that in my panel, it is saying that the men who were with Harold fell and here King Harold was killed.

As fighting scenes are viewed throughout many of the panels, there is also some scenes of nudity as well, although not in my panel, I thought it was interesting that they also included nudity in a piece of art like this as well. I think it shows how nudity was an important aspect to display, to show more meaning to the art. Although my scene showed mostly men fighting on horses, it was interesting looking at the detail put into this panel. As you look above, on both top and bottom of the panel there are borders that have detailed embroiders as well.

Throughout each border are men, who all look slightly different, that carry bow and arrows. There are bags filled with arrows in front of the men, while they all point in the direction of the enemy. All wear similar types of clothing, which I believe shows how they were all on the same side. I thought this bottom border had a lot of detail because each man has a different face shape/expression, some have a beard, while others don’t; showing that a lot of time was put into this stitching.  While the top borders show a lot of mythological creatures such as dragons, lions, and hunter-type images which I think adds meaning as well.

As so much detail was put into this piece, it is remarkable how it could last so long many years later. The detail in this panel is absolutely incredible. The Bayeux Tapestry shows the detail of the horses, the face expressions, the clothing, and armor. It is so well detailed that you can almost imagine in your head the whole day this battle took place. You see the detailed weapons of the Norman horseman; every character throughout the tapestry plays a role. With this well-detailed panel, you can almost tell everything that’s going on just by looking at each man. As one man tries to remove an arrow from his body, you get a sense of who will be victorious.

Bibliography

Aemma. (2000, October 20). A Guide to the Bayeux Tapestry . Retrieved from http://www.aemma.org/onlineResources/bayeux/bayeuxIndex1.html

Bayeux Tapestry. (2013, May 12). Retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayeux_Tapestry#Construction.2C_design_and_technique

Bloch, H. (2006). A Needle in the Right Hand of God: The Norman Conquest of 1066 and the Making and Meaning of the Bayeux Tapestry. Random House.

Brown, S. A. (1988). The Bayeux Tapestry: History and Bibliography. Boydell: Woodbridge Press.

Ingram, J. (2008, December 12). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Retrieved from Yale Law School: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/angsax.asp

Propaganda on cloth. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Bayeux Tapestry, after 1066: http://www.all-art.org/history194-29tapestry.html

UNESCO. (n.d.). Bayeux Tapestry. Retrieved from Tapestry or embroidery ?: http://www.tapestry-bayeux.com/

Wilson, D. The Bayeux Tapestry.

 

 

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Alexander the Great of Macedon

It was agreed that the army travel down south the rivers Hydaspes and Indus so that they might reach the Ocean on the southern edge of the world and from there head westward toward Persia. 1,000 ships were constructed and while the navy sailed the rivers, the army rode down along the rivers banks, stopping to attack and subdue the Indian villages along the way.

It was agreed that the army travel down south the rivers Hydaspes and Indus so that they might reach the Ocean on the southern edge of the world and from there head westward toward Persia. 1,000 ships were constructed and while the navy sailed the rivers, the army rode down along the rivers banks, stopping to attack and subdue the Indian villages along the way.

Honors Blog 2

27 February 2014

               Alexander III of Macedon, also known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Greek kingdom of Macedon. Alexander spent most of his ruling years on a military campaign, going through Asia and Africa. He soon, later in his ruling, created one of the largest empires in the ancient world. Alexander was undefeated in battle and is still considered to be one of history’s most successful commanders.

                Creating the largest empire in the world, leads to the question as to how Alexander the Great accomplished this. In 327, Alexander decided to march on India. He began doing this by getting his army into shape. First Alexander got rid of the baggage train of the Persian loot. He also sent a number of veterans home, while bringing in new fresh troops. He also added Persian Calvary and infantry to his army.

                Alexander also had great engineers who were able to build strong, large ships. The trireme was the heaviest type of warship used during this time. This heavy ship was propelled by three banks of oars, with one oarsman on each. Far less is known with certainty about the actual construction and appearance of these ships. But many were equipped with cannons that they built.

                Wanting more, Alexander continued down towards the Ganges River, but many of his men rebelled Alexander took a smaller group on an alternate route which arrived in the Indus Valley upriver from Peshawar. They reached the mouth of Indus, where some problems arose during this route, due to the high mountainous ranges. Alexander the Great used native guides which allowed him to occupy a nearby mountain. His engineers built mound, and soon the fortress was taken.

                As to how these ships and tactics worked, Alexander had his men build great ships, and this was defiantly needed once they reached India. Also, there was an additional fleet of ships and boats which traveled down the Indus River as well. None of the Greeks had ever encountered anything to prepare them for India. The terrain, the monsoons, and the fierce tribes are some of the problems that they encountered.

                When the army did move down the Indus River Valley, they did so in a unique way, dividing into three branches. The ships and boats sailed along. Alexander joined this branch. Another branch traveled on the east side of the river, and the third branch on the west side. Of course there was much fighting, as Alexander insisted on destroying any opposition along the way which might be a threat to his future rule of the Indus region.

                This great ruler was fierce and did not let anything get in his way. Whatever the terrain, from tropical to bitter cold, scorching desert to waterlogged marshland, Alexander met every challenge he was set and overcame every difficulty he encountered. While Alexander’s siege towers breached the most impregnable of strongholds, their bridge-building skills were equally outstanding and allowed them to cross ravines and rivers alike, along with his great ships.

 

Works Cited

Bosworth, A. B. (1996). Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Buhl, H. (2010). Alexander the Great & The Fall of the Roman Empire. Ancient History Pathfinder, 50-62. Retrieved from http://hbl.gcc.edu/

Macedonian ships traveling traveling down Hydaspes and Indus rivers. History of Macedon. University of California, Oxford. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/

Naiden, F. (2011). Alexander the Great. Journal of the History of Society, 1, 1-21.

Robinson, C. A. (1953). The History of Alexander the Great. Providence, Rhode Island: Indiana University Library.

Watkins, T. (2009, 06 12). Alexander of Macedonia . Retrieved from SJSU: http://www.sjsu.edu/

Wood, M. (2007). In the Footsteps of Alexander The Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia. San Diego: University of California Press, 1997.

 

 

 

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Battle of Salamis: Greek Organization/Tactics

Honors 2110B

Rainey, William. Death of the Persian admiral at Salamis. The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library. Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls',. n.d. Colour Lithograph.

Rainey, William. Death of the Persian admiral at Salamis. The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library. Plutarch’s Lives for Boys and Girls’,. n.d. Colour Lithograph.

January 28, 2014

Battle of Salamis

     In the roaring waters between the mainland of Salamis and the island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, a naval battle was fought between the Greek city-states and the Achaemenid Empire of Persia in September 480 BC.  As numerous ships trailed through the waters, the marking of the soon to be war was upon them as they lined up in preparation to see who would be victorious.

As each side prepared for battle, different tactics and strategies engulfed the minds of each side. The Persians, expecting an easy victory, were at a significant tactical advantage, outnumbering their allies, and having better ships, one being the Phoenician, which was the fastest ship. Most of their marines carried a bow, which the Persians relied greatly on in their battles, which would most likely fail if their ship was boarded, as the bow would be negated due to the standoff range. Persians had swifter ships with triremes being equipped with a ram at the bows, which would be used for ramming, which required skill sailing, Persians were more likely to employ this technique, but the Greeks developed special tactics and a unique set-up specifically to counter this.

Led by Themistocles, the Greeks sailed there estimated 300 plus ships in a single file line towards the Persians who had their boats aligned in a different form.  As the Greek ships approached closer to the Persians, the Greeks began to roe out of there single file line into a circular formation as they rowed into the clumsy line set-up of the Persians. Once in position, the Greeks turned their ram-equipped bows toward the Persians, using a common tactic “diekplous”, which is described as a tactic of sailing into gaps between enemy ships and then ramming them into the sides. As the Greeks rammed the Persians, they began to lure the Persians further into the channels. As the Persians fell for the trick, the Greeks struck again hitting the weakest point of the ships on the sides and the stern quarter. As the process was repeated, the objective was to puncture a hole in the enemy vessel or break a number of the enemy’s oars to disable the ship or get the ship to sink.

As the Persian ships sank, the Greeks were at an advantage because of their ability to swim. Many Persians drowned because they could not make it to shore. Persian command and control soon broke down, and in fear of that the Greeks might attack the bridges across the Hellespont, the few remaining ships headed back, as the Greeks scored a decisive victory.

Works Cited

Elayi, Josette. The Role of the Phoenician Kings at the Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.E.). Vol. 126. Paris: Journal of the American Oriental Society, 2006. Scholarly Journal.

Gabriel, Richard A. Battle of Salamis. Vol. 26. Military History, 2009. 28 January 2014. <http://web.a.ebscohost.com.hal.weber.edu/&gt;.

Rainey, William. Death of the Persian admiral at Salamis. The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library. Plutarch’s Lives for Boys and Girls’,. n.d. Colour Lithograph.PICTURE.

Rawlinson, George. Herodotus: The History. Vol. 4. New York Appleman & Company, 1885. Print.

Waterfield, Robin. Herodotus:The Histories. 2008. Book.

Wood, Adrian K. Warships of the World. 2012. Book.

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